Signatories Of Paris Agreement

Currently, 197 countries – every nation on earth, the last signatory is war-torn Syria – have adopted the Paris Agreement. 179 of them have consolidated their climate proposals with official approval, including, for the time being, the United States. The only major emitters that have yet to formally accede to the agreement are Russia, Turkey and Iran. Iran, Iraq and Libya – all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (Opec) – and conflict-torn states such as Yemen and South Sudan have not ratified the agreement. While the enhanced transparency framework is universal and the global inventory is carried out every five years, the framework must provide «integrated flexibility» to distinguish the capabilities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework. [58] The agreement recognizes the different circumstances of some countries and notes, in particular, that the technical review of experts for each country takes into account the specific capacity of that country to report. [58] The agreement also develops a capacity-building initiative for transparency to help developing countries put in place the necessary institutions and procedures to comply with the transparency framework. [58] Although the agreement has been welcomed by many, including French President Francois Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon,[67] criticism has also emerged. James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the agreement is made up of «promises» or goals, not firm commitments.

[98] He called the Paris talks a fraud with «nothing, only promises» and believed that only a generalized tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris agreement, would force CO2 emissions down fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming. [98] Turkey and three major oil-exporting nations are among the seven countries that have not yet ratified the 2015 Paris climate agreement. Angola joined Kyrgyzstan and Lebanon and ratified in 2020, meaning the 190-nation agreement was formally approved by 197 nations. Although the United States and Turkey are not parties to the agreement, as they have not indicated their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue to be required, as an «Annex 1» country under the UNFCCC, to end national communications and establish an annual inventory of greenhouse gases. [91] Article 28 of the agreement allows the parties to withdraw from the agreement after sending a notice of revocation to the custodian. This notification can only take place three years after the agreement for the country comes into force. The payment is made one year after the transfer. Alternatively, the agreement provides that the withdrawal of the UNFCCC, under which the Paris Agreement was adopted, also withdraws the state from the Paris Agreement. The terms of the UNFCCC`s exit are the same as those of the Paris Agreement. There is no provision in the agreement for non-compliance.

Climate scientist and founder of Germany`s New Climate Institute, Niklas Huhne, said Turkey was «reseming» the list of countries that do not yet need to ratify the agreement. The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement. [15] Indeed, research shows that the cost of climate activity far outweighs the cost of reducing carbon pollution. A recent study suggests that if the United States does not meet its climate targets in Paris, it could cost the economy up to $6 trillion in the coming decades. A lack of compliance with the NPNs currently foreseen in the agreement could reduce global GDP by more than 25% by the end of the century. Meanwhile, another study estimates that achieving – or even exceeding – the Paris targets by investing in infrastructure in clean energy and energy efficiency could have great benefits globally – about $19 trillion.

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